The test phase was completed in July 2015 and at the beginning of October the progress report will be presented to the European Commission.
On September 25, 2015 was held at the Laghetto Gabella of Curino a seminar to present the progress of the project. At this link you can download the conference presentations and see some photos of the day.
The initial phases of the project were as follows:
I- Posting mechanical robot of aluminum profiles, connectors, glass and sandwiches (RAC + REV)
II- Pyrolysis Eva II to recover the silicon metal and other metals (PES)
III- Leaching acid by filtration to separate the silicon from other metals (ALF)
IV- Electrolysis IV to recover copper and silver and neutralization treatment of acid water (OME)
At the end of the trial, because of the presence of fluorinated plastic in the sandwich, it had to abandon the pyrolysis process, which would have resulted in emissions of fluorine with the fuels cracking, and it is opted for the incineration of the sandwich, to be performed at a external company that has already given an initial availability of maximum (Phase TES).
In practice, the results of the experiment possible to confirm the validity of the initial project, with the only variant of incineration instead of pyrolysis.
They have already been pre-built prototypes of some components of Phase I, and now, on the basis of the overall results obtained in the trial, would like to start the realization of the complete project, for which the use of acquiring:
- the waste code for the conferment of the panels;
- the code for the treatment of residues of the bottom of the treatment of waste to energy;
- the authorization to the construction of the pilot plant, and in particular of phases III and IV, as for phase I is of purely mechanical treatments, while the phase III is an operation to make the outside.
The ultimate impact expected from this project is shown schematically in the following mass flow:
and can be thus summarized:
every 1.000 kg of input panels are obtained:
– 180 kg of aluminum metal to sell on the market;
– 10 kg of connectors to give the WEEE;
– 700 kg of white glass of high quality for sale on the market;
– 36,5 kg of silicon metal to be recovered by filtration after leaching and for sale in the metallurgical sector;
– 1,67 kg of copper and silver recovered at cathodes electrolysis and for sale on the market;
– 120 kg of calcium nitrate in aqueous solution to the silo to be used as fertilizer in agriculture;
The total yield of these components is 93% and the loss is represented by 6% from plastics intended for combustion and residual recovered metals as hydroxides.
By contrast, we have the following environmental impact:
- 20 kg: production of hydroxides of various metals (tin, aluminum, lead, zinc) to be disposed of in landfill as waste;
- 2 kg: NOx emissions to the anode of the electrolysis (to be verified);
- 5 kg: production (at the waste to energy plant) of ash resulting from the reduction in special fluorine with sodium bicarbonate and/or calcium carbonate, at the waste to energy plant (to be verified).
It must be said that there is currently no industrial technology that allows to achieve a yield of 93% and that the problem of disposing of the photovoltaic panels will have a major impact as early as 2017.
The pilot plant which is planned will have the processing capacity of 1 t/hour of photovoltaic panels to a maximum of 8.000 t/year.
According to forecasts in the draft, submitted for approval to the Province of Biella the 29th September 2015, the plant should be active from 2017.
Sasil S.p.A., Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro and PV Cycle are working on a 4 years project to test and demonstrate the application of innovative technologies for integral recycling of end-of-life PV panels, mono and poly-crystalline in an economically and viable way.
The partnership wished to share with stakeholders the first important milestone achieved: having found the technological solutions for every step of the treatment process and translated into a technically and economically feasible industrial process design.
To this end, on the 25th of September, a conference took place at the visitors centre of Laghetto Gabella in Curino (Biella, Italy), in the past a feldspar mine transformed in a prestigious natural area.
During the conference have been proposed four solutions with low environmental impact for the recovery of the following components:
- Automatically recovery of aluminum profiles;
- Recovery of high quality extra clear glass, to be employed in hollow and flat glass industry, implying very significant energy and CO2 emission saving in the glass melting process;
- Recovery of (metallic) silicon, to be employed as ferrosilicon in iron silicon alloys, thus saving important energy cost and CO2emission for the production of primary silicon;
- Recovery of silver by electrolysis.
The actual situation concerning the collection of end-of-life PV panels has been illustrated by PV Cycle’s Olmina Della Monica. It appears that the conferment of such panels saw a significant drawback since 2012 when incentives in Europe for the substitution of old panels were strongly reduced. This drawback is expected to imply a delay in the need for technologies for their disposal with several years.
Gian Andrea Blengini of the JRC – Institute for Environment and Sustainability presented the life cycle assessment performed on the FRELP process, showing the important improvements that can be achieved with respect to actually available technologies. He highlighted as well the important contribution the project can offer to the EU Draft Ecodesign Working Plan 2016, identifying the constraints that actual product design imply for the full recovery of the panels and that could be improved by producers. As such, in particular the use of fluorine content in the panel’s back-sheet should be abandoned to permit an environmentally and economically optimal recovery process.
Lodovico Ramon, project manager of FRELP, then illustrated the objectives of the project and the 4 phases of the treatment process that will be piloted next year. He extensively revealed the environmental achievements that are expected, as well as the employment opportunities that would derive from exploitation of the treatment process.
At this point, and before presenting more in detail the main technologies to be experimented, Sandro Hreglich of the Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro explained in detail how PV panels are constituted, underlining the high variability of the materials involved and their respective amounts. The explanation made clear which materials can be recovered (glass, silver, alumina, silicon) and what are the main difficulties to do so.
After the coffee break Sasil consultant Piero Ercole explained in detail the various technologies studied, simulated and trialed to separate the glass from the polymer-based adhesive encapsulation layer (called EVA) and showed the identified best technology translated into a pre-prototype that offered excellent results. He proceeded with an exposure of the further treatment of this EVA, originally foreseen to be submitted to pyrolysis, but, due to environmental constraints, at last transformed in ashes by means of controlled combustion. This process was trialed by the Stazione Sperimentale del Combustibile.
Lastly, Stefano Ceola explained the audience how from these ashes metals will be recovered.
Next step of the project regards the realisation of prototype equipment to trial the findings on a significant scale (1 ton PV panels per hour). The construction is expected to be performed during 2016 after obtainment of the needed authorisations, while pilot operation is foreseen in 2017.
Si ringrazia @MicheleGiorgioPhotography per le foto.
DOWNLOAD HERE THE PRESS RELEASE
Qui di seguito è possibile scaricare i pdf delle presentazioni dei relatori durante la conferenza:
For further information:
Lodovico Ramon, managing director Sasil S.p.A.
This gallery contains 30 photos
PhotoLife (LIFE13 ENV/IT/001033) is an EU LIFE+ co-funded project with the aim of recovery of glass and main values from end life Photovoltaic panels. Scope of the project is the construction of a pilot plant and the experimentation of the innovative process for the full recovery of different kind of PV panels. Eco Recycling is Coordinator of the project, the designer and the builder of the pilot plant. The project has been started at 1 June 2014.
Actually processes were developed and patented for manual recovery of specific type of panels, and in particular for crystalline Si or CdTe.
The proposed project will instead focus on a hydrometallurgical approach (avoiding high temperature and energy-consuming treatments), using conventional equipments easily available for common waste collectors, and comprehending all the commercial types of photovoltaic panels: crystalline Si (45-50% of the total market is represented by polycrystalline and 35% by monocrystalline), amorphous Si (5-8% of the market), Cd-Te (8-9%) , CIS and CIGS (2%).
PhotoLife project will aim:
- to demonstrate in pilot scale the technical feasibility of an innovative process (developed on the base of laboratory scale experiments) for the automated and simultaneous treatment of the three main kinds of photovoltaic panels (crystalline Si, amorphous Si, Cd-Te)
- to characterize the pilot plant products (glass and metals)
- to determine the overall economic feasibility of the pilot plant process accounting also for the recovery of electronic equipment (printed circuit boards and other electronic equipment) and plastic
PhotoLife Project has been developed according to the following actions:
1- Elaboration of the existing data
- B1 Analysis of HTR lab results
- B2 Estimation of the market trend
- B3 Preliminary economic feasibility
2- Photovoltaic panels retrieval and characterization
- B4 Photovoltaic panels retrieval and classification
- B5 Retrieved panel characterization
3- Process and plant design and realization
- B6 Process design
- B7 Pilot plant design (including offer request)
- B8 Pilot plant construcion (including site preparation and autorization request)
4- Pilot plant experiments
- B9 Disassembling and physical treatment: optimization using Si- and CdTe- based panels
- B10 Chemical treatment: optimization usng Si- CdTe-based panels
- B11 Wastewater treatment: optimization
- B12 Experiments using innovative photovoltaic panels
- B13 Product Characterization
5- Economic Analysis
- B14 Economic analysis and management strategies
6- Lab scale tests with innovative photovoltaic panels (CIS and CIGS)
- B15 Physical pretreatment and chemical treatment of innovative photovoltaic panels
7- Monitoring phase
- C1 Environmental assessment of the project impact
- C1.1 Monitoring of environmental impact
- C1.2 LCA
- C1.3 Preliminary environmental impact assessment and financial prevision for the future full s
- C2 Assessment of socio-economic impacts
8- Dissemination phase
9- Management phase
25 September 2015
Conference FRELP project
Sasil S.p.A. (Brusnengo), with SSV – Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro (Murano) and PV Cycle (Brussels), have the honor to invite all interested to the conference: ‘A RECOVERY PROCESS FOR ALL USEFULL MATERIALS FROM END-OF-LIFE PV PANELS’, to be held September 25 in Curino (BI).
Here you can download the conference program and the brochure of the project:
When: 25 september 2015
Where: Laghetto Gabella, Curino (BI) – map
Info & registrations:
Completion, at the Stazione dei Combustibili, of the emission tests relating to the pyrolysis and combustion of the sandwich of EVA (action 4). Preliminary data confirm the presence of fluoride so important, which precludes the use of pyrolysis and thus lead to the forced choice of incineration. We will receive the full report by mid-June and will enter as a supplement to deliverable “B4”.
It was contacted a company that works in the field of incineration of waste, with a furnace large enough for our purpose, and that is available to do two campaigns per year of incineration on providing our sandwiches, so that they can return to us the residual ash for subsequent treatment of leaching and electrolysis to be carried out in Sasil. For the transfer from the incinerator of Sasil sandwiches we have already identified the code, and we are evaluating the return code to Sasil according to the final report of the Stazione dei Combustibili.
We are completing the preparation of about 10 kg of ash from sandwiches to provide the company “Darsa”, that will handle the supply of the electrolysis, to make additional checks on the characteristics of the recovered metals and the quality of the eluates to be treated to recover the hydroxides and calcium nitrate. The preparation consists in reducing the sandwich powder oxidized with sizes less than 100 microns, such as to permit efficient acid attack. Darsa will, depending on the needs of electrolysis, to look for the right conditions of acid attack, simulating as closely as possible to the scheme of flow developed by Sasil.